I had a conversation with a fellow writer recently about contractions, when they’re appropriate to use and when they should be avoided.
But first, what are contractions? Is there a contractions list?
What Are Contractions? Contractions Definition
A contraction is a combination of two words—almost always a noun with a verb—linked with an apostrophe into one, shortened word.
Examples of contractions include it’s, wasn’t, haven’t, and hundreds more (see our contractions list below)
We use contractions every day, usually without noticing them. Why? Because contractions are simple, easier to pronounce, and part of our vernacular.
However, if you think contractions are a modern invention, proof that the English language is going to the dogs, you couldn’t be more wrong.
A Brief History of Contractions
Contractions have been around for a very long time—in English, as far back as the creation of the language itself, when the Angles and Saxons invaded the British Isles and mixed the local Celtic dialects with their Germanic languages (the Germans love contractions and compound words).
Since then, the list of contractions continued to expand, usually brought by invaders or imported during cultural movements. For a full history of contractions, read this excellent article.
Should Contractions Be Used in Writing?
Lest you think contractions can be found only upon the tongues of the masses and not in the canons of literature, you can indeed find contractions in literary masterpieces, from Beowulf to Moby Dick to Great Expectations to Ulysses to modern bestsellers and more (see examples below).
Even the Chicago Manual of Style recommends the use of contractions in writing, saying, “Most types of writing benefit from the use of contractions” (5.103)
Most English teachers say contractions should never be used in writing, at least not in formal writing (see here, here, and here).
However, the reality is that contractions have been used in English writing for over 1,400 years. And yes, they’re even used in scholarly articles (it’s about 2,750,000 times, can’t about 3,290,000 times, don’t about 4,270,000 times).
What are some of the most common contractions? I’m so glad you asked:
Unsure about which contractions you’re using or should be using? Below is a list of commonly used contractions (you can find a full contractions list here):
I am = I’m
You are = You’re
They are = They’re (not to be confused with there or their)
Do not = Don’t
Would have = Would’ve
She would = She’d
He would = He’d
Will not = Won’t
Cannot = Can’t
Should not = Shouldn’t
It is = It’s (not to be confused with its, the possessive)
Is not = Isn’t
The following three-word-contractions aren’t as common (at least in writing), but they are awesome:
Might not have = Mightn’t’ve
Should not have = Shouldn’t’ve
Examples of Contractions Used in Classic Literature
Contractions can be frequently found in literature, both modern and classic. Here’s a list of contractions we found in the literary canon.
Please note that while some say contractions should only be used in dialogue, these examples of contractions were found both in dialogue and normal prose.
From Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, Chapter Three:
It’s the Black Sea in a midnight gale.—It’s the unnatural combat of the four primal elements.—It’s a blasted heath.—It’s a Hyperborean winter scene.—It’s the breaking-up of the icebound stream of Time.
From the fourth paragraph of Great Expectations by Charles Dickens:
I earnestly expressed my hope that he wouldn’t, and held tighter to the tombstone on which he had put me; partly, to keep myself upon it; partly, to keep myself from crying.
From Benjamin Franklin’s memoir, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin:
He reply’d,* that if I made that kind offer for Christ’s sake, I should not miss of a reward. And I returned, “Don’t let me be mistaken; it was not for Christ’s sake, but for your sake.”
From The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde:
It’s absurd to talk of the ignorance of youth.
Ulysses by James Joyce:
Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.
*Anyone know what this is a contraction of, if it is a contraction at all? I found this by chance and am not familiar with it.
Examples of Contractions in Contemporary Literature
Contemporary literature all but throws out the so-called “rule” not to use contractions in writing. Here are several examples of the way many bestselling and prize-winning authors use contractions.
The first two sentences of Neil Gaiman’s American Gods:
Shadow had done three years in prison. He was big enough, and looked don’t-[mess]-with-me enough that his biggest problem was killing time.
From the first chapter of The Name of the Wind by Patrick Rothfuss:
They’d been coming to the Waystone every Felling night for months and Kote had never interjected anything of his own before. Not that you could expect anything else, really. He’d only been in town for a year or so.
From Pulitzer-Prize-winning author Michael Cunningham’s By Nightfall:
There’s no accounting, in retrospect, for this lapse in the Harris tradition.
From The Dinner by Herman Koch**:
Unhappiness can’t stand silence—especially not the uneasy silence that settles in when it is all alone.
From the Pulitzer-Prize-winning novel, Wonder Boys, by Michael Chabon:
Over the years I’d surrendered many vices, among them whiskey, cigarettes, and the various non-Newtonian drugs…
**This is an English translation from the original Dutch, but since Dutch is a Germanic language, I think it’s safe to assume the original uses contractions.
Should YOU Use Contractions In Your Writing?
If you’re like me, you learned not to use contractions in school. In fact, I spoke with a friend who was trained as an elementary school English teacher, and she was taught to actively discourage students from writing with contractions.
Personally, I think the no contractions rule is outdated and actually ignorant of the historical foundations of the English language (again, contractions were in Beowulf, people!).
The “no contractions” rule is outdated and ignorant of the foundations of the English language.
I will say that if you’re writing formal essays in high school, college, and grad school, you should probably avoid contractions, if only so you don’t ruin your grade.
However, if you’re writing anything remotely creative, and especially if you’re writing dialogue, you need to be using contractions. Real people use them and so should you.
More Contractions Resources
How about you? Do you think contractions should be used in writing? Why or why not? Let us know in the comments section.
To get a sense of how weird it is to not use contractions, write a scene using the following prompt without using a single contraction.
Prompt: A couple is on their first date at a trendy restaurant. One is allergic to shellfish, the other can’t stand brussel sprouts.
Write for fifteen minutes. When you’re finished, post your contraction-less practice in the comments section. And if you post, be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers.
So, we've brainstormed potential ideas and picked our topics, two of the hardest parts of the writing the perfect personal statement. But, perhaps the hardest part is next: the writing.
Writing a personal statement for college applications is one of the most complicated things you have to do in life and, like most of those things, you will want to blow it off until the possible last second. However, writing a personalized personal statement for college applications is perhaps one of the most rewarding things to do, and, like most rewarding feats in life, it will take time and persistence.
Before anyone goes into a stress-induced coma, it's beneficial to keep the end product in mind. You want something that captures your emotions and bottles your thoughts into an Aladdin mantle lamp to hand to the admissions officer, and your writing is the strongest way to land in the heart of your readers.
1. As I've told many, many seniors, the best advice I ever received was from an admissions officer at Bowdoin College: If you're meticulously planning out every phrase and each transition, you're doing it wrong. You should not force the words onto Word (pun), nor should you be sketching out the 'perfect essay.' It needs to come naturally, with personal anecdotes and connections.
2. Reel in your reader with a catchy phrase. You want something interesting, but not too controversial. The first sentence in my personal statement contained the word "naked," but also the phrases "sat between two pieces of bread." (Are you curious yet?)
3. To personalize your essay, make comparisons. Everyone loves metaphors and similies. They are the brushstrokes to Van Gogh's Starry Night. First, a metaphor is a comparison of two unlike things that help make a visual picture. A simile is similar, but they use the words "like" or "as." For instance, fish and ice cream aren't alike, but if the ice cream was expired, you could say it tasted like rotten fish.
How could you use an extended metaphor in your essay? The following is a sentence from my supplement to Brown University. "I'm essentially a seed planted in a pot too small. For a majority of my life, I've lived in the same location in the state of sunny Florida, but, like a growing flower, I need to be replanted within a larger pot that will ensure the extension of my roots, leaves, and experience." Instantaneously, you picture someone who has been in one place for too long. Or you picture me in a flowerpot, wearing leaves and a green stem.
4. Using metaphors and similes, make connections to your personal life. Sure, the comparison of fish-tasting ice cream might be good, but how about taking it a step further. Perhaps the expired ice cream smelt like the rotten fish you used to catch with your great grandfather before he passed away. In an essay about an art project I completed, I compared my charcoal-black hands to the bottom of my mother's burnt Thanksgiving rolls.
5. While you're conjuring up metaphors and referencing similes, don't worry about the word count (at least not yet). It's far easier to take out the unnecessary redundants and cliche phrases, rather than improvising them.
6. Forego any fears of contractions and commas. Someone asked me if contractions were forbidden from college essays and I had to tell them that colleges don't really care. It comes down to your tone and personal voice -- do you normally speak out every word in your sentence? Perhaps when you're giving a speech or presentation, but "don't," "can't," and "should've" are common phrases in everyone's vocab (even though the last one isn't a real word).
To see the last tip, read the full article at The Collegiate Blog, the only college admissions blog run by college students. Be sure to follow The Collegiate Blog on Twitter for more updates: @The_Collegiate.
If you're still stumped on writing your personal statement, ask your questions in the comment box for more help!
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