The Essays Urging Ratification During The New York Ratification Debates

Creating the United States
Convention and Ratification

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When delegates to the Constitutional Convention began to assemble at Philadelphia in May 1787, they quickly resolved to replace rather than merely revise the Articles of Confederation. Although James Madison is known as the “father of the constitution,” George Washington’s support gave the convention its hope of success.

Division of power between branches of government and between the federal and state governments, slavery, trade, taxes, foreign affairs, representation, and even the procedure to elect a president were just a few of the contentious issues.  Diverging plans, strong egos, regional demands, and states’ rights made solutions difficult. Five months of debate, compromise, and creative strategies produced a new constitution creating a federal republic with a strong central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments.

Ten months of public and private debate were required to secure ratification by the minimum nine states. Even then Rhode Island and North Carolina held out until after the adoption of a Bill of Rights.

“For we are sent hither to consult not contend, with each other; and Declaration of a fix’ Opinion, and of determined Resolutions never to change it, neither enlighten nor convince us.”

Benjamin Franklin, Speech in Congress, June 11, 1787

Philadelphia, Birthplace of the Constitution

Philadelphia, the largest city in the American colonies, and its adjacent rural areas are depicted on this 1752 map. The first illustration of the city’s State House, later called Independence Hall, dominates the upper portion of the map. The map also identifies the owners of many individual properties. Philadelphia was, in essence, the capital of the United States during the Revolutionary War, and the State House was home to the second Continental Congress and the Federal Convention of 1787.

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The Virginia Plan

The Virginia delegates to the Constitutional Convention, led by James Madison (1741–1836) and George Washington (1732–1799), prepared a plan of government that provided for proportional representation in a bicameral (two-house) legislature and a strong national government with veto power over state laws. Virginia’s governor, Edmund Randolph (1753–1813), who ultimately refused to sign the Constitution, presented the plan to the convention on May 29, 1787.  The plan, designed to protect the interests of the large states in a strong, national republic, became the basis for debate.

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  • “The Virginia Plan of Government” in James Madison’s notes. Notes of Debates in the Federal Constitutional Convention, May 29, 1787. Manuscript. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (056.01.02) [Digital ID# us0056_01]

    Read the transcript

  • “The Virginia Plan of Government” in James Madison’s notes on the Constitutional Convention, May 29, 1787. Manuscript. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (056.01.01) [Digital ID# us0056_01p01]

    Read the transcript

  • The Virginia Plan of Government, May 1787. Manuscript in the hand of George Washington. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (56.00.00) [Digital ID#s us0056, us0056_1, us0056_2]

William Paterson Defends New Jersey Plan

William Paterson (1745–1806) presented a plan of government to the Convention that came to be called the “New Jersey Plan.” Paterson wanted to retain a unicameral (one-house) legislature with equal votes of states and have the national legislature elect the executive. This plan maintained the form of government under the Articles of Confederation while adding powers to raise revenue and regulate commerce and foreign affairs.

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William Paterson. Notes for Speeches in Convention, June 16, 1787. Manuscript. William Paterson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (59.01.00) [Digital ID# us0059_01p1]

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The New Jersey Plan

The New Jersey delegates to the Constitutional Convention, led by William Paterson (1745–1806) proposed an alternative to the Virginia Plan on June 15, 1787.  The New Jersey Plan was designed to protect the security and power of the small states by limiting each state to one vote in Congress, as under the Articles of Confederation. Its acceptance would have doomed plans for a strong national government and minimally altered the Articles of Confederation.

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  • “The New Jersey Plan of Government” in James Madison. Notes of Debates in the Federal Constitutional Convention, June 15, 1787. Manuscript. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (057.01.02) [Digital ID#s us0057_01p2, us0057_01p01, us0057_01]

    Read the transcript

  • The New Jersey Plan of Government, June 1787. Manuscript in the hand of George Washington. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (57.00.01) [Digital ID#s us0057, us0057_1, us0057_2]

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Madison Responds to Paterson’s New Jersey Plan

William Paterson’s New Jersey Plan proposed a unicameral (one-house) legislature with equal votes of states and an executive elected by a national legislature. This plan maintained the form of government under the Articles of Confederation while adding powers to raise revenue and regulate commerce and foreign affairs. James Madison commented on Paterson’s proposed plan in his journal that he maintained during the course of the proceedings. Madison’s notes, which he refined nightly, have become the most important contemporary record of the debates in the Convention.

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James Madison. Notes of Debates in the Federal Constitutional Convention, June 16, 1787. Manuscript. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (059.00.02) [Digital ID# us0059p3]

Read the transcript

Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia

The Pennsylvania State House (known today as “Independence Hall”) in Philadelphia was the site of American government during the revolutionary and early national years. The national Congress held most of its sessions there from 1775 to 1800. Within its walls the Declaration of Independence was adopted, and the Constitution of the United States was debated, drafted, and signed. This print depicts the back of the building, with citizens and Native Americans walking on the lawn.

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William Birch & Son. “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” from The City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, As it Appeared in the Year 1800. . . . Etching. Philadelphia: 1800, restrike printed in 1840. Marian S. Carson Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (055.02.00) [Digital ID# ppmsca-24335]

Convention Rejects Franklin’s Proposed Daily Prayer

Responding to the divisive tension among the delegates that threatened to jeopardize the purpose of the Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin proposed that a clergyman lead a daily prayer to provide divine guidance in resolving differences. The delegates declined the proposal, citing the numerous religious sects represented in the Convention and a lack of funds to pay a chaplain.

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Franklin Soothes Anger

When delegates at the Federal Constitutional Convention became frustrated and angry because of the contentious issue of proportional representation in the new national legislature, Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) urged “great Coolness and Temper.”  James Wilson (1742–1798) from Pennsylvania reading Franklin’s speech, told the delegates “we are sent here to consult, not to contend, with each other.”  As the eldest delegate at the convention, Franklin acted on several occasions to restore harmony and good humor to the proceedings.

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“Great Compromise” Saves the Convention

By mid-July the representation issue had the Constitutional Convention teetering on the brink of dissolution. Finally, delegates made a “great compromise,” to create a bicameral (two-house) legislature with the states having equal representation in the upper house or senate and the people having proportional representation in the lower house, where all money bills were to originate.

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Committee of Detail

John Rutledge (1739–1800) of South Carolina chaired the five-member Committee of Detail assigned on July 23, 1787, to take the nineteen resolutions adopted by the Convention, a plan presented by South Carolina delegate Charles Pinckney (1757–1824), and the rejected New Jersey Plan, as the basis for producing a draft constitution. The Committee of Detail draft boldly refocused the convention. The multiple annotations by Alexander Hamilton (1757–1804) of New York illustrate the hard work remaining for the delegates.

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  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Detail, ca. August 6, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Family Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (061.03.00) [Digital ID# us0061_03]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Detail, ca. August 6, 1787. Printed document with annotations by James Madison. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (61.02.00) [Digital ID# us0061_02]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Detail, August 6–September 8, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (61.01.00) [Digital ID# us0061_01]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Detail, ca. August 6, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Convention Secretary William Jackson. William Johnson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (61) [Digital ID# us0061]

Report of the Committee of Style

The Committee of Style, chaired by William Samuel Johnson (1727–1819) working with James Madison (1751–1836), Rufus King (1755–1827), and Alexander Hamilton, gave the Constitution its substance. Gouverneur Morris (1752–1816), a delegate from Pennsylvania, is credited with providing the preamble phrase “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union”—a dramatic change from the opening of the previous version. This simple phrase anchored the new national government in the consent of the people rather than a confederation of states.

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  • Draft United States Constitution: Reports of the Committee of Style, September 8–15, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Family Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (062.04.01) [Digital ID# us0062_04]; us0062_04p1, us0062_04p2, us0062_04p3

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Style, September 8–15, 1787. Printed document with annotations by James Madison. James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (062.03.00) [Digital ID#s us0062_03p1 us0062_03p2, us0062_03p3, us0062_03p4]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Style, September 8–15, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Convention Secretary William Jackson. William Samuel Johnson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (62.02.00)
    [Digital ID#s us0062_02p1; us0062_02p2, us0062_02p3, us0062_02p4]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Style, September 8–15, 1787. Printed document with annotations by Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (62.01.00) [Digital ID#s us0062_01p1, us0062_01p2, us0062_01p3, us0062_01p4]

  • Draft United States Constitution: Report of the Committee of Style, September 8–12, 1787. Printed document with annotations by George Washington and Convention Secretary William Jackson. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (62) [Digital ID#s us0062, us0062_1, us0062_2, us0062_3]

Washington’s Frustrations at the Convention

George Washington, president of the Federal Constitutional Convention, revealed few of the personal conflicts and compromises of the delegates in his daily diary. However, even the unflappable Washington exposed his frustrations when he noted on September 17, 1787, that all delegates to the convention had signed the Constitution except “Govr. [Edmund] Randolph and Colo. [George] Mason from Virginia & Mr. [Elbridge] Gerry from Massachusetts.”

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George Washington diary entry, September 17, 1787. Manuscript. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (063.01.00) [Digital ID#s us0063_01, us0063]

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Opposition to the Constitution

As the convention concluded, George Mason (1725–1792) continued to fear an ultra-national constitution and the absence of a bill of rights. On the eve of the Constitution’s adoption on September 17, 1787, Mason noted these major objections on the version of his copy of the Committee of Style draft. Mason sent copies of his objections to friends, from whence they soon appeared in the press.

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George Mason. “Objections to the Constitution of Government Formed by the Convention,” ca. September 17, 1787. Manuscript document. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (64.00.01) [Digital ID#s us0064_1, us0064]

“Monarchy or a Republic?”

As the Constitutional Convention adjourned, “a woman [Mrs. Eliza Powell] asks Dr. Franklin well Doctor what we got a republic or a monarchy? A republic replied the Doctor if you can keep it.” Although this story recorded by James McHenry (1753–1816), a delegate from Maryland, is probably fictitious, people wondered just what kind of government was called for in the new constitution.

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James McHenry. Diary, September 18, 1787. Manuscript. James McHenry Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (63.02.00) [Digital ID# us0063_02p1]

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Early Optimism of the Acceptance of New Constitution

Samuel Powel (1739–1793), a Philadelphia political leader, reflects the early optimism for the quick acceptance of the new federal Constitution. Such optimism proved premature as Anti-Federalist opponents of the Constitution mounted stiff opposition in key states, such as New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia, but its proponents ultimately prevailed.

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Letter from Samuel Powel to George Washington, November 13, 1787. Manuscript. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (67.01.00) [Digital ID# us0067_01p1]

Jefferson’s Concern about Method of Electing President

Because they were serving as American ministers abroad during the constitutional debates John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were not involved in the Constitutional Convention. Neither saw major flaws in the new constitution. However, Jefferson thought that the legislature would be too restricted and greatly feared that the manner of electing the president would weaken the office. Jefferson asserted that the United States president “seems a bad edition of a Polish King, a reference to the custom in eighteenth-century Poland of electing kings, which undercut royal authority.

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Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, November 13, 1787. Manuscript. Thomas Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (67) [Digital ID# us0067]

Conflict in Ratification of the Constitution

The process of state ratification of the United States Constitution was a divisive one. This satirical, eighteenth-century engraving touches on some of the major issues in the Connecticut politics on the eve of ratification. The two rival factions shown are the “Federals,” supporters of the Constitution who represented the trading interests and were for tariffs on imports, and the “Antifederals,” those committed to agrarian interests and more receptive to paper money issues. Although drawn to portray events in Connecticut, the concepts could be applied throughout the nation.

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Madison Defends Constitution

In the ensuing debate over adoption of the Constitution, James Madison teamed with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay of New York to write a masterful dissection and analysis of the system of government presented in the Constitution. The eighty-five articles were originally published in New York newspapers as arguments aimed at anti-Federal forces in that state, but their intended scope was far larger. Madison's Federalist No. X explains what an expanding republic might do if it accepted the basic premise of majority rule, a balanced government of three separate branches, and a commitment to balance all the diverse interests through a system of checks and balances.

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  • Publius (pseudonym for James Madison). The Federalist. No. X in the New York Daily Advertiser, November 22, 1787. Serial and Government Publications Division (68.03.00) [Digital ID# vc6.7a]

  • The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution. 2 vols. New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788. Thomas Jefferson Library, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (66) [Digital ID# us0066, us0066_1, us0066_2, us0066_3]

The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five newspaper essays published anonymously but were in fact written in defense of the Constitution by James Madison, John Jay (1745–1829), and Alexander Hamilton. The essays were collected and published as a two-volume work. This edition was once owned by Hamilton’s wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, whose sister gave it to Thomas Jefferson. As his notes indicate, Jefferson attempted to determine the authorship of each essay.

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  • The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution. 2 vols. New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788. Thomas Jefferson Library, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (66.00.01) [Digital ID# vc127]

  • The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution. 2 vols. New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788. Thomas Jefferson Library, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (66) [Digital ID# us0066, us0066_1, us0066_2, us0066_3]

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James Madison Defends the Constitution

The Federalist Papers, a series of eighty-five newspaper essays published anonymously, were in fact written in defense of the Constitution by James Madison, John Jay (1745–1829), and Alexander Hamilton. In this essay, Madison argues against the criticism that a republic can not govern a large territory. “A democracy consequently will be confined to a small spot,” wrote Madison, but “A republic may be expanded over a large region.”

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Alexander Hamilton Defends the New Constitution

The Federalist Papers, a series of eighty-five newspaper essays published anonymously, were in fact written in defense of the Constitution by James Madison (1751–1836), John Jay (1745–1829), and Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804). In this essay Hamilton opens his argument in support of a strong executive branch with: “the election of the president is pretty well guarded. I venture somewhat further; and hesitate to affirm, that if the manner of it be not perfect, it is at least excellent. It unites in an eminent degree all the advantages; the union of which was to be desired.” This collected volume was owned and annotated by James Madison.

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[Alexander Hamilton]. Number LXVIII. The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution. 2 vols. New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (66.01.00) [Digital ID# us0066_01]

Federal Constitution Ratified by Virginia

Before the newly proposed Constitution could become the supreme law of the United States, it would require the ratification of nine states. New Hampshire and Virginia became the ninth and tenth states to approve the document. Supporters of the Constitution used these state ratifications to pressure the remaining states to approve and join the establishment of the new federal republic. New York followed suit in July 1788, but Rhode Island and North Carolina did not ratify until after the formation of the new government in 1789.

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“Ratification of the New Constitution by the Convention of Virginia” in Supplement to the Independent Journal, July 2, 1788. New York: J. and A. McLean. Broadside. Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (071.03.00) [Digital ID# us0071_03]

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New York Parade to Support the New Federal Constitution

On July 23, 1788, a New York City parade of ten divisions of artisans and professionals, preceded by the firing of ten guns, was launched to pressure the New York Ratification Convention. Just days later New York became the eleventh state to ratify the new federal Constitution on July 26, 1788.

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Order of procession, in honor of the Constitution of the United States . . . by order of the Committee of Arrangements, Richard Platt, chairman,  July 23 [1788]. New York: 1788.  Printed broadside. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (68.01.00)  [Digital ID# us0068_02]

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The Federalist Papers


A nation without a national government  is, in my view, an awful spectacle.

    --Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist Papers, No. 85

    

After the Revolutionary War, many Americans realized that the government established by the Articles of Confederation was not working. America needed a new form of government. It had to be strong enough to maintain national unity over a large geographic area, but not so strong as to become a tyranny.Unable to find an exact model in history to fit America's unique situation, delegates met at Philadelphia in 1787 to create their own solution to the problem. Their creation was the United States Constitution.

Before the Constitution could become "the supreme law of the land," it had to be ratified or approved by at least nine of the thirteen states. When the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787, they knew ratification would not be easy. Many people were bitterly opposed to the proposed new system of government. A public debate soon erupted in each of the states over whether the new Constitution should be accepted. More important, it was a crucial debate on the future of the United States.

The Federalist Papers

Nowhere was the furor over the proposed Constitution more intense than in New York. Within days after it was signed, the Constitution became the subject of widespread criticism in the New York newspapers. Many commentators charged that the Constitution diminished the rights Americans had won in the Revolution.

Fearful that the cause for the Constitution might be lost in his home state, Alexander Hamilton devised a plan to write a series of letters or essays rebutting the critics. It is not surprising that Hamilton, a brilliant lawyer, came forward at this moment to defend the new Constitution. At Philadelphia, he was the only New Yorker to have signed the Constitution. The other New York delegates had angrily left the Convention convinced that the rights of the people were being abandoned.

Hamilton himself was very much in favor of strengthening the central government. Hamilton’s Constitution would have called for a president elected for life with the power to appoint state governors. Hamilton soon backed away from these ideas, and decided that the Constitution, as written, was the best one possible.

Hamilton published his first essay in the New York Independent Journal on October 27, 1787. He signed the articles with the Roman name "Publius." (The use of pseudonyms by writers on public affairs was a common practice.) Hamilton soon recruited two others, James Madison and John Jay, to contribute essays to the series. They also used the pseudonym "Publius."

James Madison, sometimes called the Father of the Constitution, had played a major role during the Philadelphia Convention. As a delegate from Virginia, he participated actively in the debates. He also kept detailed notes of the proceedings and drafted much of the Constitution.

Unlike Hamilton and Madison, John Jay of New York had not been a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. A judge and diplomat, he was serving as secretary of foreign affairs in the national government.
Between October 1787 and August 1788, "Publius" wrote 85 essays in several New York newspapers. Hamilton wrote over 60 percent of these essays and helped with the writing of others. Madison probably wrote about a third of them with Jay composing the rest.

The essays had an immediate impact on the ratification debate in New York and in the other states. The demand for reprints was so great that one New York newspaper publisher printed the essays together in two volumes entitled The Federalist, A Collection of Essays, written in favor of the New Constitution, By a Citizen of New York. By this time the identity of "Publius," never a well-kept secret, was pretty well known.

The Federalist, also called The Federalist Papers, has served two very different purposes in American history. The 85 essays succeeded by helping to persuade doubtful New Yorkers to ratify the Constitution. Today, The Federalist Papers helps us to more clearly understand what the writers of the Constitution had in mind when they drafted that amazing document 200 years ago.

The complete text of The Federalist Papers


ACTIVITY

A Guide for Government

What follow are quotations from several essays in The Federalist Papers. After each selection are two kinds of activities. The first activity includes questions that should be discussed and answered by the whole class or in small groups. If necessary, refer to a dictionary or your government textbook. The second activity after each selection is intended as an individual or homework assignment.

Federalist Paper 23--Alexander Hamilton

The principle purposes to be answered by Union are these -- The common defense of the members -- the preservation of the public peace as well as against internal convulsions as external attacks -- the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States -- the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries.

For Discussion

1. According to Hamilton, what are the main purposes of forming a Union under the Constitution? Make a list in your own words.
2. Do the majority of Hamilton's purposes relate to domestic or to foreign affairs?

Individual Assignment

Which one of Hamilton's purposes do you think is the most important for the United States today? Explain your answer in about 100 words.


Federalist Paper 47--James Madison

The accumulation of all powers legislative, executive and judiciary in the same hands, whether of one, a few or many, and whether hereditary, self appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.

For Discussion

1. According to this excerpt, do you think Madison supported or opposed the principle of "separation of powers"? (Refer to your government textbook if you are not familiar with this term.)
2. Why do you think Madison held this view of the "separation of powers"?

Individual Assignment

In about 100 words, describe a government in which all legislative, executive and judicial power is in the hands of one person or a single small group.


Federalist Paper 51--James Madison

If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.

For Discussion

1.   Which of the following statements would Madison agree with based on his views in the above excerpt?
a. Government is necessary.
b. The people should elect government leaders who act like angels.
c. Elected government officials should be controlled by a system of "checks and balances." (Refer to your government textbook if you are not familiar with this term.
2.  What would you say was Madison's general opinion of people in government: angels? devils? something else?

Individual Assignment

Find and describe five examples of "checks and balances" in the Constitution (refer to your government textbook).

Federalist Paper 72--Alexander Hamilton

The original intent of the Constitution was to place no limit on the number of times an individual could be elected president. However, after Franklin D. Roosevelt won four presidential elections in a row, a constitutional amendment (the 22nd) was passed limiting a person to two terms as president. In the following selection, Hamilton argues against limiting the number of presidential terms.

[An] ill effect of the exclusion would be depriving the community of the advantage of the experience gained by the chief magistrate in the exercise of his office. That experience is the parent of wisdom is an adage, the truth of which is recognized by the wisest as well as the simplest of mankind. What more desirable or more essential than this quality in the government of nations?

For Discussion

1. What argument does Hamilton give against limiting the number of times a person may be elected president?
2. What could have been one of the arguments used by those who proposed the 22nd Amendment?

Individual Assignment

President Reagan remarked that there should not be a limit on the number of times a person may serve as president. Do you agree we should go back to the original intent of the Constitution and allow individuals to be elected for any number of presidential terms? Explain your answer in about 100 words.

Federalist Paper 78--Alexander Hamilton

"If then the courts of justice are to be considered as the bulwarks of a limited constitution against legislative encroachments, this consideration will afford a strong argument for the permanent tenure of judicial offices, since nothing will contribute so much as this to that independent spirit in the judges, which must be essential to the faithful performance of so arduous a duty.
This independence of the judges is equally requisite to guard the constitution and the rights of individuals from the effects of . . . designing men."

For Discussion

1. What does Hamilton mean by "the permanent tenure of judicial offices"? Does Hamilton support or oppose this idea?
2. What does Hamilton mean when he says that an "independent spirit in the judges" is essential for them to do their duty?

Individual Assignment

Write a letter of about 100 words to the editor of a newspaper agreeing or disagreeing with the view that the U.S. Supreme Court justices should be elected for limited terms of office.

For Further Reading

Cooke, Jacob E., ed. The Federalist. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1961.
Van Doren, Carl. The Great Rehearsal: The Story of the Making and Ratifying of the Constitution of the United States. New York: The Viking Press, 1948.


© 2002, Constitutional Rights Foundation, 601 South Kinglsey Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90005, (213) 487-5590 Fax (213) 386-0459

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